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Subiect: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

  1. #16
    vodalau2004 este offline Utilizator Samanta
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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    GRUPUL DE FERMENTI
    Mecanismul acțiunii este preponderent fermentativ ori asemănător cu acesta. Însăși fermenții ca atare se clasifică după caracteristici și acțiune fiziologică. În cazul de față sunt trei grupe care acționează nemijlocit asupra organismelor patogene și respectiv crescând eficacitatea în lupta cu microbii patogeni.
    - Fermenții primei grupe au acțiune antiinflamatorie, antibacteriană și
    imunostimulatoare, acționand asupra pereților vaselor sanguine.
    - Fermenții grupei a doua au acțiune antiaterosclerotică și lichidează ischemia, adică alimentarea sanguină scăzută a țesuturilor sau a organelor interne separate,acționand asupra circulației sanguine și a sistemului limfatic.
    - Fermenții grupei a treia au o acțiune hipotensivă și anume de a normaliza
    tensiunea arterială și într-un mod semnificativ activează circulația limfatică, drenând și eliminând autotoxinele.
    PROTEINELE FUNCȚIONALE
    Din start trebuie să focalizăm atenția nemijlocit asupra proteinelor funcționale. Cele mai importante sunt: hirudina, destabilaza, orhenaza, antistazina, decorzina, calina,eglina și câteva alte particule proteice.
    Pentru a primi o imagine complexă asupra grupei respective este suficient să analizăm doi fermenți importanți: hirudina și destabilaza.

  2. #17
    cris este offline Utilizator De'al casei
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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Am si eu 2 lipitori mititele.
    Stie cineva care sunt conditiile ptr a le tine in viata?
    Vasele cu apa nu mai sunt suficiente.
    Duceti-ne direct la izvor!

  3. #18
    vodalau2004 este offline Utilizator Samanta
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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Citat Citat din cris Vezi post
    Am si eu 2 lipitori mititele.
    Stie cineva care sunt conditiile ptr a le tine in viata?
    Cateva bucatele de sange inchegat de la bovine sau ovine - de la un abator.
    Daca doresti sa le aplici pe tine recomand doar cele crescute in laborator.
    Alte lamuriri la tel 0742152189 orele 8-16.

  4. #19
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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    NETMEDIC . ro

    Portal de cultura medicala
    Terapii complementare - Hirudoterapia - folosirea lipitorilor in scopuri terapeutice

    In ce afectiuni se foloseste
    Hirudoterapia, hirudoreflexoterapia (tratamentul cu ajutorul lipitorilor prin folosirea unor puncte reflexogene) este un mijloc terapeutic incercat de foarte multe secole in practica medicilor de orice specialitate. Daca stramosii nostri foloseau lipitorile (hirudo medicinalis) numai pentru normalizarea presiunii singelui, in cazul comotiilor cerebrale, al traumelor, pentru inlaturarea deochiului, a blestemelor, pentru calmarea acceselor de isterie, in zilele noastre spectrul afectiunilor care sint tratate prin hirudoterapie a fost marit considerabil. Iata numai o lista scurta a afectiunilor in cazul carora este indicata hirudoterapia: hipertensiune arteriala, cerebroscleroza, arterioscleroza, stenocardie, cardioscleroza postinfarct, tromboflebite, varice, hemoroizi, afectiuni ginecologice, afectiuni ale pielii, migrena, infertilitate, afectiuni oculare, prostata, parodontoza, nefrite, otite si altele. Adesea, chiar si in cele mai complicate cazuri, atunci cind bolnavul nu mai poate evita interventia chirurgicala, hirudoterapia poate invinge boala (varice, hemoroizi, tromboflebita).

    In saliva lipitorilor exista 30 de substante active biologic
    Cercetarile stiintifice din acest moment confirma actiunea terapeutica a hirudinului (substanta care se gaseste in saliva lipitorilor) asupra organismului uman. Pe linga hirudin, in saliva lipitorilor se mai gasesc inca 30 de substante active din punct de vedere biologic, care nu pot fi sintetizate sau create pe cale artificiala. Inca din momentul in care lipitoarea incepe sa suga singele incepe sa se manifeste actiunea terapeutica asupra organelor modificate din punct de vedere patologic, dupa care intra in actiune un intreg sir de mecanisme de normalizare a microcirculatiei; in particular, este vorba despre mecanismul de inlaturare a spasmelor vasculare, de asemenea, despre mecanismul de grabire a hemoragiei, ceea ce contribuie la o distribuire mai rapida a structurilor asimilate catre organele-tinta (organele cu un focar patologic). In acelasi timp scade potentialul de coagulare, ceea ce conduce la imbunatatirea hranirii tesuturilor si, in consecinta, la lichidarea procesului patologic. Combinata cu folosirea plantelor, hirudoterapia creste efectul tratamentului de 1,5 ori. Medicina orientala a dovedit existenta pe piele a unor zone deosebite (puncte) care au o legatura bine exprimata cu organele interne. Capacitatea de a influenta de la suprafata pielii organele interne permite folosirea in scopuri terapeutice a unor tipuri diverse de reflexoterapie - acupunctura si, in aceeasi masura, hirudoreflexoterapia. Este vorba in acest context de combinarea a doua metode: acupunctura si hirudoterapia. Astfel, se pune in actiune punctul reflexogen, responsabil pentru un organ sau altul in organism, prin intermediul unei influente mecanice (intepatura lipitorii), plus injectarea in sistemul sangvin a salivei lipitorii - un complex de 30 de fermenti activi din punct de vedere biologic, care au proprietati terapeutice (antinflamatoare, antibacteriene, de purificare a singelui, de calmare a durerilor), imbunatatesc metabolismul, normalizeaza fondul hormonal.

    Sint prevenite complicatiile bolilor cardiovasculare
    Actiunea terapeutica a lipitorilor are la baza trei factori. In primul rind, lipitoarea musca punctele reflexogene alese de medic. In al doilea rind, lipitoarea introduce in singe saliva care contine o gama de substante active din punct de vedere fiziologic, actiunea carora conduce la normalizarea procesului patologic. Si, in al treilea rind, lipitoarea realizeaza descarcarea mecanica a singelui. Prin aceasta se asigura si pomparea libera de catre lipitoare a singelui si, de asemenea, hemoragia care continua dupa indepartarea lipitorii.
    Hipertensiunea, stenocardia, cardiopatia ischemica, starea de preinfarct, infarctul miocardic, aterosleroza constituie o lista incompleta a patologiei sistemului vascular, unde lipitorile sint recomandate ca un mijloc terapeutic foarte eficient. Ele sint folosite atit independent, cit si in combinatie cu alte metode de tratament, excluzind insa anticoagulantele.
    In ateroscleroza vaselor cerebrale, infarct, tromboza si embolia vaselor cerebrale, lipitorile pot fi nu numai un mijloc de tratament, ci o metoda de prevenire a complicatiilor care pot aparea in timpul acestor boli.
    Hirudoterapia este eficienta de asemenea in tratarea proceselor inflamatorii din rinichi, ficat, vezica biliara. Lipitorile se folosesc si in ginecologie. Hirudoterapia are rezultate pozitive in cazul unor afectiuni cum sint endometritele, inflamarea ovarelor, mastita, modificari degenerative ale ovarelor, sterilitate. Efectul terapeutic se observa destul de repede, durerile scad brusc, temperatura se normalizeaza, ciclul menstrual devine normal.

    Si hemoroizii se trateaza prin aceasta metoda
    Cei care sufera de hemoroizi stiu cit de greu se trateaza aceasta afectiune si cit de multe neplaceri poate provoca aceasta. Folosindu-se o singura data de lipitori, nici un bolnav nu mai refuza aceasta metoda mai tirziu, pentru ca efectul terapeutic se observa foarte repede. In ciuda arsenalului contemporan foarte larg de mijloace de tratament care se afla la dispozitia oftalmologilor, unii dintre acestia stiind despre eficacitatea hirudoterapiei apeleaza la ajutorul oferit de lipitori. Aceasta terapie este recomandata in procesele inflamatoare ale sistemului circulator, in glaucom, in traumele oculare (mai ales in cazul contuziilor), in cazul cresterii tensiunii oculare. Inca din antichitate, lipitorile sint folosite in tratarea afectiunilor sistemului nervos. In zilele noastre, spectrul acestor patologii a fost largit. Nevritelor, nevralgiilor nervului sciatic, comotiilor cerebrale, paraliziei periferice a nervului facial li s-au adaugat cerebroscleroza, miopatia, stomatonevralgia.

    Procesele inflamatorii din articulatii, artrita se trateaza foarte eficient prin combinarea metodelor hirudoterapiei, ale terapiei manuale si ale fitoterapiei.

    Ca mijloc profilactic in perioada postoperatorie, lipitorile sint folosite si in chirurgie. Trebuie remarcat de asemenea ca hirudoterapia grabeste vindecarea cusaturilor postoperatorii, contribuie la dezumflarea cicatricelor.

    In otorinolaringologie, hirudoterapia a patruns nu demult, dar si-a gasit foarte repede locul in tratarea nevritei acute a nervilor auditivi, a otitei externe acute, a afectiunilor cavitatilor nazale.

    Lipitorile sint folosite cu succes si in tratarea bolilor de piele: in diferite tipuri de dermatoze, in toxicodermie, impotriva eczemelor, in tuberculoza pielii (lupus), in unele cazuri chiar si impotriva psoriazisului. In cazul furunculilor, hirudoterapia este cea mai eficienta si cea mai lipsita de durere metoda de tratament. Umflaturile, inrosirile si durerile dispar a doua zi dupa aplicarea lipitorilor. Hirudoterapia se foloseste si in tratarea unor boli ale sistemului respirator: in obezitatea la persoanele suferinde de plamini, in formele grele de astm bronsic, in pneumoniile insotite de insuficienta respiratorie.

    De curind, hirudoterapia a inceput sa devina foarte populara si in stomatologie: in cazurile de parodontoza, de gingivita, nevralgii, stomatita.

    Sedintele de hirudoterapie scad toxinele din singe
    Dupa examinarea obligatorie si determinarea starii in care se gaseste bolnavul, medicul stabileste numarul lipitorilor, zona si punctele in care sint aplicate acestea (de exemplu, zonele in care se vad venele pe cap - in cazul hipertensiunii arteriale - sau alaturi de vena afectata - in cazurile de tromboza), dar si numarul sedintelor. Lipitorile se orienteaza singure si se adapteaza fiecarui organism. La unele persoane, sedinta poate dura 10-15 minute, la altele - citeva ore, totul depinde de gravitatea procesului si de evolutia bolii. Daca singele contine virusi, microbi sau produse toxice, lipitorile incep sa scuipe un lichid care contine aceste substante daunatoare. Concentratia de toxine din singe dupa sedinta de hirudoterapie scade de zece ori. Acest fapt poate fi comparat cu procedura de hemodializa sau cu functionarea unui rinichi artificial.

    Teama prezenta la foarte multe persoane inainte de sedinta dispare repede. Bariera psihologica este depasita deja dupa prima sedinta. Dupa sedinta, lipitorile fie sint date pacientului, fie sint ucise pentru a exclude din start posibilitatea de a contamina si pe altcineva cu infectia respectiva. Rana microscopica ramasa in urma lipitorii se vindeca foarte repede. Rezultate foarte bune sint obtinute daca se combina hirudoterapia cu folosirea plantelor, a homeopatiei, fizioterapiei.

    In conditii domestice, lipitorile se pastreaza la temperatura camerei, intr-un loc unde nu exista mirosuri tari, pentru ca ele sint foarte sensibile la conditiile exterioare.


    Georgeta Licsandru

  5. #20
    cris este offline Utilizator De'al casei
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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Ok,multam,atunci o sa iau alte lipitori,la mititele le dau drumul in parau...multumesc ,sunt interesata de lipitori.
    O zi buna!
    Vasele cu apa nu mai sunt suficiente.
    Duceti-ne direct la izvor!

  6. #21
    vodalau2004 este offline Utilizator Samanta
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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Citat Citat din cris Vezi post
    Cand eram eu copil,dupa iesirea unei ape din matca ramaneau balti.
    Cand lipitorile se vedeau in balta argiloasa se baga calul/sau omul cu picioarele.Daca lipitorile se lipeau repede de picioare,se statea cat sa fie sigur lipite,cateva minute si se iesea afara.Se dezlipeau singure.La copii nu se lipeau.Doar la calul/omul batran(varicos) se lipeau.
    daca lipitorile erau state de mult in balta(subtiri si mici) se lipeau de orice,copiiii se fereau.
    Este foarte interesat ce spui, ar trebui ca cercetătorii sa explice acest fenomen, și anume de ce nu se lipeau de copii. Daca este adevarat nu pot sa spun decat ceea ce cred si acum - Lipitoarea a fost creata de Bunul nostru Dumnezeu pentru a trata oamenii.

  7. #22
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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    INTRODUCTION

    For more than 30 centuries leeches Hirudo medicinalis have been successfully applied in medical practice. Year by year our knowledge of the curative power of these bloodsucking animals in the treatment of various diseases enlarges and becomes more profound (Nikonov 1992).
    However, the extension of the application area for leeching is based on precise understanding of the mechanisms of action of biologically active substances (BAS), produced by the medicinal leeches. BAS provide not only preventive and medical action on blood coagulation and fibrinolys (Nikonov and Baskova 1987, Baskova and Nikonov 198, they actively interfere with an immune system (Nikonov 1992), govern the processes of protein synthesis and lipids exchange (Nikonov et al. 1994), protect DNA from pathological action of muteness (Nikonov et al. 1989) etc. Powerful inhibitory potential of the leech saliva in relation to enzymes provides anti-inflammatory action (Sawyer 1986), blockade of thromboformation, regress of arteriosclerosis (Nikonov 1992).
    Medicinal leech is a source of unique biological active substances synthesized only by this species of animals. Basically they are prostaglandin similar to prostacyclin (PGI2) by the range of their physiological actions providing the blockade of the platelet vascular link in the intrinsic mechanism of blood coagulation (Baskova and Nikonov 1987). Hirudin produced by medicinal leeches is a unique highly specific inhibitor of thrombin without any side effects (Markwardt 1989). Destabilase complex, an example of natural liposome with the multifunctional (first of all antithrombotic and thrombolytic) action, is also synthesized only by the leeches (Baskova and Nikonov 1991).
    And as a result, the blockade of thromboformation is provided both at the earliest stages of the blood coagulation cascade (i.e. adhesion and aggregation of platelets, inhibition of blood plasma kallikrein activity) and at the later stage as well (blockade of thrombin activity). The presence of destabilase fibrinolytic activity ensures selective thrombolysis specific to fibrin.
    However, medicinal leech is not a suitable medicinal form both for the doctor and for a patient. Therefore, we have made an attempt at the development of a series of medicinal tools with antithrombotic and thrombolytic action on the basis of BAS produced by medicinal leeches. However, we aimed at using the whole medicinal leeches and not their salivary gland secretion as a source of BAS (Nikonov and Baskova 1990) to reduce the cost of the final preparation.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS
    The leeches used for this work were bred by the firm "International Medical Leech Centre" in an artificial surrounding at the firm's biofactories. The drug preparation "HM1" produced by the firm "International Medical Leech Centre".
    Destabilase was obtained by an affinity chromatography method on Lysine-Sepharose (Pharmacia Fine Chemical) (Baskova I.P., Nikonov G.I., 1991). To isolate the blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor we applied an affinity chromatography method on Thrypsin-Silachrom (Biolar).
    Electrophoresis was performed in the Lemly system (Weber K., Osbome M., 1969) using both 12.5% and 16% polyacrylamide gels in the presence of 2M urea. A destabilase preparation (at protein concentration of 1 mg/ml) dissolved in 50 MM Tris-HCI buffer, pH 8.8, containing 100 mM of mercaptoetanol was held for 15 hours at 20° C and then the mixture of DS-NA, glycine and bromophenol blue was added at the same buffer to the final concentration of 0,1, 10 and 0,025% respectively and incubated 1.5 hours at 45°C . The reactants from Kit LMW (Pharmacia) were used as the molecular mass markers.
    Antiserum of RIA KIT (Amersham) was used as a source of 6-keto-PGF1a antibodies; antibodies were immobilized on CNBr-activated Agarose. The contact of the solution containing leech prostaglandins with the immobilized antibodies was effected in the recycling system during 2 h. The elution was performed with the buffer containing 0.2 M glycine, 0.15 M HCl, pH3.0.
    100% methanol was used as an eluating buffer in the chromatography on Silasorb C8. Fat-soluble fractions obtained were dried in a rotor evaporator and a lyophilic drier until dry residue that was subsequently dissolved in 0.05 M Tris-HCl buffer pH 8.9.
    Platelet aggregation was carried out by the Born method (Born G.V., Cross H., 1963).
    The protein concentration was determined according to the Lowry method (Lowry et al. 1951). The hirudin activity was analysed by the prolongation of the time of fibrinogen coagulation by thrombin using the set of reagents Test-Thrombin 3O IU/ml ("Behringwerke" Germany).
    The activity of blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor was determined by the prolongation of blood plasma recalcification time: the two-fold prolongation of this period corresponded to 2 APC units (antiprocoagulant units) of inhibitor. The content of leech prostaglandins was calculated from the amount of 6-keto PGF1a using the set of reagents 6-keto-prostaglandin F1a [125-I] assay system ("Amersham" England).
    The activity of destabilase was analysed on the plates of stabilised fibrin (Baskova and Nikonov 1991), and also by the spectrophotometric method with the use of the chromogenic substrate L-g-Glu-pNA at the wave length-4O5 nm (Svendsen et al. 1972).
    Inhibition of enzyme trypsin and chymotrypsin activity was determined with the use of the chromogenic substrate S-23O2 and Succinyl-L-phe-pNA ("Kabi", Sweden).
    Lipase (triglyceridase) and cholesterolesterase activities were detected with the help of the substrates glycerine-3-[I-14N] oleat and cholesterol-[I-14N] oleat with the specific radio-activity 50 mKu (Baskova IP, Usupova GI, Nikonov GI., 1984).
    Blood viscosity was measured on a rotational viscosity-metre at the shift voltage of 0,05 and 0,1 Pa. Platelet aggregation was studied by Born’s method. Erythrocytes strainment was estimated by the velocity of cells filtration through a filter with the pores diameter of 5 mc. Mechanical stability was estimated by ultrasonic hemolysis velocity at the supplied power of 0,4 W/sm2 and frequency 800 кHz.
    The antithrombotic and thrombolytic analyses of drugs action were done with the use of the vein thrombosis model by Wessler et al. (1959) with modifications by Markwardt et al. (1989). Experiments have carried out on white non-linear male rats with a body mass 220±30 g; the animals are anaesthetised by aminazine. Thrombosis was stimulated with human blood serum activated with glass with subsequently stasing of the jugular vein section. The thrombosis degree was estimated with the macroscopic and weight methods (Markwardt et al., 1989).
    The arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) was registered in the tail vein of SHR line (spontaneous hypertensive rats; body mass about 280±25 g; an initial level of arterial pressure 165±5 mm Hg). The rats were bred by the vivarium of Moscow State University.
    The condition of the microcirculation system was estimated with the help of histochemical response to alkaline phosphatase. The ratio of the number of micro vessels with the diameter < 15 mc to the number of muscular filaments (m. Extensor hallucis proprius) was determined on the plates and the interior diameter of the micro vessels was measured. The permeability of vessels was studied by the qualitative method by the development of papule colouring after intravenous injection of thrypan dark blue into rats in the doze 15 mg/kg.
    The basic indicators of lipids metabolism (total cholesterol, cholesterol of low and high density lipoproteins, triglycerides) were registered in patients blood plasma on an automatic blood analyser.
    The influence of the preparations on rat’s sensitivity to pain was estimated by the reaction of tail pull out from water at the temperature of 500С.
    Experimental research was carried out on guinea-pigs and white rats; on the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal pentobarbital (60 mg.kg-1). Irritating and allergic effects of the preparations, their influence on the morphological structures of skin and liver of the experimental animals were analysed; the content of total soluble proteins, summarised lipids, maleic dialdehyde, and the influence on the hydration and enzymes skin activity were determined; the antiinflammatory action of the preparations was studied (Nikonov, G.I., Titova, E.A et al., 1994).
    All data were expressed as mean±SEM. Significance of difference was evaluated by Student’s t.

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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    ANTIATHEROSCLEROTIC ACTION OF THE PREPARATION HM1 CONTAINING THE ACTIVE COMPONENTS PRODUCED BY THE MEDICINAL LEECHES
    ABSTRACT. The medicine HM1 for oral administration containing a complex of biologically active substances produced by the medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) has been developed. Alongside with the components acting on the systems of hemostasis and fibrinolysis HM1 contains the substances with cholesterolesterase and triglyceridase activities: 2.9±0.2 and 7.7±0.3 nmol/mg of protein per hour, respectively. Clinical trials on 30 patients with dislipoproteinemia have shown that after taking the medicine during 4 weeks (0.6 g; daily) a statistically reliable reduction in the level of common cholesterol by 6,3% and cholesterol of low density lipoproteins by 5,2%. Hypolipidaemical effect of HM1 does not depend on the patients sex and depends on their age and dislipoproteinemia type. This effect of HM1 is more pronounced in a subgroup patients with dislipoproteinemia II B as compared with types IIA and IV.
    INTRODUCTION

    The multisecular history of the application of medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) with therapeutically purposes testifies to the effectiveness of these tools for the treatment of a lot of diseases and, first of all, cardio-vascular diseases.
    It has been shown that the leech saliva has cholesterolesterase and triglyceridase activities (Baskova IP, Ucupova GI, Nikonov GI., 1984). Our experiments have shown that the leech saliva administered intravenously to rats on an atherogenic diet (8 months) reduces fibrinogen level, plasma heparin tolerance and diminishes lipid deposits in the intima of large vessels. Long-term chronic oral administration of leech preparations to rats kept on an atherogenic diet reduced the area of local oedema of large vessels. The saliva reduced the 3H-thymidine incorporation into the human atherosclerotic intimal cell culture (Baskova IP, Nikonov GI, et al, 1989).
    The combination of these properties of the leech saliva permits a conclusion about antiatherosclerotic action of medicinal leeches. However, the medicinal leech itself is inconvenient tool both for a patient and for the doctor. Therefore, we have developed the preparation HM1 (capsules for oral administration) containing a complete gang of biologically active substances produced by the medicinal leeches. This work is devoted to the results of clinical trials of the HM1 preparation as tool with antiatherosclerotic action.
    RESULTS.
    1. Biochemical characterization of the HM1 preparation.
    In Table 1 some biochemical parameters of the water extract of the HM1 preparation are represented. Only those components of HM1 that directly influence the hemostasis and fibrinolysis systems and the blood lipids composition were subjected to the analysis. HM1 contains biologically active substances blocking blood coagulation (blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor, stable prostacyclin analogue, hirudin), causing fibrinospecific thrombolysis (destabilase), enzymes inhibitors (bdellins and eglins) and substances with cholesterolesterase and triglyceridase activities.
    The medicinal form of HM1, i.e. “HM1 in gelatine capsules for oral administration” is offered for clinical trials. One capsule contains 150 mg of the preparation. On the basis of the results of preclinical trials a daily doze of 3-4 capsules of HM1 for the person has been offered.
    2. Clinical characterization of patients group.
    During trials 48 patients with ishemic heart disease who were on treatment in stationary cardiology department of the Institute of Therapy of Ukrainian Academy of Medical Sciences were examined. In total there were 42 men, 6 women; aged from 30 to 72. The second group of patients consisted of 28 patients with nephrogenal hypertension who were on treatment in the nephrology department of the Institute of Therapy of MSA of Ukraine. In total there were 18 men, 10 women; aged from 41 to 53. From this number of patients 30 persons with hyperlipidaemia were selected.
    The regimen for the preparation administration was 0,6 g per day. All the patients received treatment by other medicinal preparations according to their indications. The control group (20 patients) did not receive HM1.
    3. Results of clinical trials (antiatherosclerotic action).
    After four weeks of treatment by HM1 in the doze of 0,6 g a day the level of total blood plasma cholesterol decreased by 6,3% (p<0,05), the level of cholesterol of low density lipoproteins by 5,2% (p<0,05). A drop in the level of blood plasma triglycerides by 7,9% was observed (though statistically unreliable) . Changes in the registered indicators before and after treatment by HM1 are presented in Table 6.
    Table 6.
    Modification of lipid metabolism indicators during of hyperlipidaemia treatment by HM1 (n=30).
    Indicators Before treatmentAfter 4 weeks of treatment
    Total cholesterol (g/l)2,81±0,192,63±0,17*
    Cholesterol of low density lipoproteins (g/l)2,08±0,271,97±0,17*
    Triglycerides (g/l)1,76±0,351,62±0,24
    Cholesterol of high density lipoproteins (g/l)0,40±0,050,42±0,05
    Relation between cholesterol of LDL and HDL5,01±0,724,79±0,76
    * - p<0,05

    The fact that as soon as after 4 weeks the preparation administration its hypolipidaemical action was exhibited is striking. The cholesterol level of high density lipoproteins not practically changed after treatment. The hypolipidaemical effects of the preparation had initial tendencies and manifestation in men and women (Table 7).
    Table 7.
    Modification of lipid metabolism indicators depending of the sex of patients during treatment by HM1.
    Indicators Before treatmentAfter 4 weeks of treatment
    Man
    (n=22)
    Woman
    (n=
    Man
    (n=22)
    Woman
    (n=
    Total cholesterol (g/l)2,80±0,182,81±0,192,61±0,18*2,63±0,17*
    Cholesterol of LDL (g/l)2,10±0,192,07±0,211,97±0,19*1,97±0,19*
    Cholesterol of HDL (g/l)0,41±0,040,40±0,040,42±0,040,42±0,03
    Triglycerides (g/l)1,79±0,421,72±0,411,68±0,261,62±0,29
    * - p<0,05

    Results of the analysis of HM1 effectiveness depending on the patients age have shown that the action of the preparation is more pronounced in the group of rather young patients (Table .
    Table 8.
    Hypolipodemical effectiveness of the HM1 in patients of various ages.
    Indicators Before treatmentAfter 4 weeks of treatmentModification
    ( %)
    Patients 45-59 (n=1
    Total cholesterol (g/l)2,87±0,142,61±0,13-8,7*
    Cholesterol of LDL (g/l)2,08±0,131,87±0,12-10,1*
    Cholesterol of HDL (g/l)0,41±0,040,43±0,04+4,8
    Triglycerides (g/l)1,75±0,371,61±0,21-8,0
    Patients older than 60 (i=
    Total cholesterol (g/l)2,74±0,132,67±0,17-2,2
    Cholesterol of LDL (g/l)1,95±0,161,93±0,19-1,1
    Cholesterol of HDL (g/l)0,39±0,040,41±0,03+4,4
    Triglycerides (g/l)1,79±0,0441,65±0,05-7,9
    * - p<0,05

    In the analysis of HM1 hypolipidaemical activity dependence of the effect manifestation on the type dislipoproteinemia has been found (Table 9). 15 patients with dislipoproteinemia II A, 9 patients with II B, 6 patients with type IV were included. The groups were comparable by the basic demographic, anamnesis and clinical characteristics (i.e. differed only by the content of various lipid fractions in blood plasma).
    Table 9.
    Modification of lipid metabolism indicators during of treatment various types of dislipoproteinemia by HM1.
    Indicators (g/l) Before treatmentAfter 4 weeks of treatment
    Dislipoproteinemia IIA (n=15)
    Total cholesterol2,81±0,122,75±0,17
    Cholesterol of LDL2,13±0,122,00±0,18
    Cholesterol of HDL0,40±0,040,40±0,03
    Triglycerides1,39±0,251,34±0,21
    Dislipoproteinemia IIB (n=9)
    Total cholesterol2,99±0,142,61±0,15*
    Cholesterol of LDL2,16±0,152,02±0,18
    Cholesterol of HDL0,42±0,040,43±0,05
    Triglycerides1,90±0,151,46±0,13*
    Dislipoproteinemia IV (n=6)
    Total cholesterol2,68±0,132,56±0,13
    Cholesterol of LDL1,78±0,111,83±0,14
    Cholesterol of HDL0,43±0,040,45±0,04
    Triglycerides2,22±0,442,10±0,42
    After four weeks of treatment by HM1 the total cholesterol level in the patients with dislipoproteinemia II A decreased by 2,1% (p<0,05), II B - by 12,7% (p<0,05), type IV - by 4,3% (p<0,05). A drop in cholesterol of low density lipoproteins in relation to the initial level in the group of patients with dislipoproteinemia II A has made 6,0% (p>0,05), IIB - 6,7% (p<0,05), IV type - 3,4% (p<0,05). The level of cholesterol of high density lipoproteins has not practically changed.
    DISCUSSION.
    Since the present paper is devoted to the problem of antiatherosclerotic action other pharmacological properties are not exposed to the analysis. However it should be mentioned that the basic pharmacological tendency of the preparation involves preventive antithrombotic and thrombolytic actions.
    The HM1 clinical trials have completely confirmed the results of research on experimental animals kept on an atherogenic diet for a long time (Baskova IP, Ucupova GI, Nikonov GI., 1984). Treatment of the patients with dislipoproteinemia by HM1 results in a statistically reliable drop in the total cholesterol level and LDL cholesterol (Table 6). The tendency to drop of a blood plasma triglycerides level by 7,9% also was observed. The important factor is the fact that HM1 hypolipidaemical effect is exhibited as early as after 4 weeks of treatment. In men and women the similar action had the identical tendency and manifestation, i.e. there are no sexual distinctions (Table 7). A more pronounced decrease in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides was observed in younger patients (up to 60; Table . Obviously for elderly patients a longer course of treatment is needed considering their age peculiarities.
    HM1 hypolipidaemical action was much more pronounced in the subgroup of patients with dislipoproteinemia IIB as compared with types IIA and IV. It should be noted that there is no direct dependence of the manifestation degree of the effect on the initial values of the lipids level of various fractions. There is a definite methodological difficulty in the interpretation of the obtained results by the subgroups of the patients with various manifestations of dislipoproteinemia as in the data of the subgroups both the patients with the primary and with the secondary (in particular, nephrogenic) forms of disturbances of lipids metabolism were included.
    Thus, the combined action of biologically active substances produced by the medicinal leeches can be estimated as positive when using HM1 as the preparation with hypolipidaemical action. However the HM1 effect is a rather complicated phenomenon which is indicated by heterogeneity in modifications of the parameters of lipid metabolism in various groups of patients and at various types of dislipoproteinemia

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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    DESTABILASE COMPLEX - NATURAL LIPOSOME PRODUCED BY MEDICINAL LEECHES Hirudo medicinalis
    ABSTRACT. Electrophoretic analysis of the destabilase preparation demonstrates presence of protein combinations with MW 12.3, 25 and 50 kD. Fraction (MW 12.3 D) is a monomer of destabilase aggregation having properties of micellar proteins and represents a stable lipid - protein complex, where the role of lipid component is played by the stable analogue of prostacyclin (MW 391 D). The synthesis of low molecular fraction of the destabilase is fulfilled with bacteria - symbiont of Aeromonas hydrophila leeches.
    When the destabilase (MW 12.3 kD) contacts with blood a process of complexes formation is triggered with hirudin and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor forming a stable "destabilase complex" (DC; MW 25 kD) possessing also high aggregation capacity. Polymer forms of destabilase complex form a liposome changing its spatial orientation depending on nature of solvent. Such structural organization provides high stability of DC components and a rapid penetration through cellular membrane (transmembrane transfer) and it also provides prophylactic antithrombotic action in case of peroral application to animals due to the blockade of vascular platelet (inhibition of platelet aggregation by prostacyclin analogue) and plasmic (inhibition of thrombin activity and blood plasma kallikrein) links of hemostasis process. Destabilase fraction with MW 50 kD is a dimer of the destabilase complex.
    As a result of DC destruction (liposome) hirudin, prostacyclin analogue and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor are released.
    INTRODUCTION

    Destabilase e-(g-Glu)-Lys isopeptidase was first discovered in the composition of salivary gland secretion of Hirudo medicinalis in 1986 (Nikonov G.I., Baskova I.P., 1987). The enzyme performs its fibrinolytic (thrombolytic) activity by hydrolysis of isopeptide bonds formed during fibrin stabilization in the presence of factor XIII of blood coagulation (Lorand L., Conrad S.M., 1984) causing a non-traditional mechanism of fibrinolysis.
    Destabilase at electrophoresis manifests as three strips corresponding to protein fractions with MW 12.3, 25 and 50 kD, and a prostacyclin analogue determined as 6-keto-PGF1a accompanies each of those fractions. Considering the destabilase conduct in aqueous and organic solvents an assumption about mycellar nature of this combination was made, i. e. the capacity for aggregating of destabilase in multiple complexes is realized in the micelle compounding which is capable to change its spatial orientation depending on solvent polarity (Martinek K., Klyachko N.L., et al 1989).
    The question concerning relationships of destabilase with other biologically active substances produced by the medicinal leeches is not quite clear. Intravenous injections of purified preparation of destabilase lead not only to blood clot destruction but also to sharp increase of antiprocoagulant blood potential in experimental animals: the time period of fibrinogen coagulation with thrombin and the time of blood plasma recalcification (Nikonov G.I., 1992) are prolonged significantly.
    The present research is devoted to the study of the destabilase mycellar nature and also to its interaction with such biologically active compounds as hirudin and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor.
    RESULTS

    1. Obtaining and characteristics of Destabilase Complex
    Based on the revealed capacity of the destabilase protein part to bond lysine, the preparation of destabilase has been obtained from dried medicinal leeches powder (HM1). The electrophoretic analysis fulfilled in polyacrylamide gel demonstrates presence of 3 strips corresponding to MW 12.3, 25 and 50 kD. In the result of the preparational electrophoresis a sufficient number of destabilase fractions with indexed molecular masses was accumulated. Using the radioimmunoassay to determine 6-keto-PGF1a content it was shown that every fraction contained a prostaglandin component (Table 13).
    Table I3.
    Content of 6-keto-PGF1a and other substances in destabilase fractions obtained with the preparational electrophoresis.
    Fraction of destabilase (MM) kD 6-keto-PGF1a ng/mgHirudin ATU/mgBlood plasma kallikrein inhibitor APC U/mg
    12.30.87±0.0300
    25.01.84±0.09175±10138±15
    50.02.20±0.16190± 12186±19
    The obtained destabilase fraction with MW 25 kD was subjected to repeating electrophoresis in denaturing conditions in polyacrylamide gel. At maximum concentrations of the original protein the strip corresponding to MW 50 kD appeared. During gelfiltration (Sepharose G-50; column size 50x1.5 cm.) of destabilase fraction with MW 25 kD 2 peaks were eluted corresponding to proteins with MW 25 and 50 kD. The prolonged dialysis (24 h; +4°C) of destabilase fraction with MW 25 kD through a membrane with pores penetrable by proteins only with MM not more than 30 kD leads to penetration through a membrane of only 10% of protein from a dialyzed volume. Thus the destabilase possesses the capability to form rather strong aggregates and one of the forms of such the aggregate is the fraction of the destabilase with MW 50 kD.
    2. Destabilase having the properties of micelle
    In the following series of experiments an attempt was taken to obtain protein and lipid components from destabilase complex in a homogeneous state. For this purpose methods of liquid gelfiltration (Sephadex G-50), electrophoresis in denaturing conditions, thermal processing at +80°C during 15 minutes, alkaline hydrolysis (2 M NaOH; 24 h; 37°C) of polypeptide chain and prolonged (72 hours at +4° C) dialysis through pores penetrable by substances with MW not more than 1000 D were used. None of enumerated methods led to disintegration of the bond between protein and lipid components and moreover neither activity nor components content changed. Considering the presence of a strong connection between the destabilase components the methods of prostacyclin purification (PGI2 ) to release it were used:
    - extraction by organic solvents (ethyl acetate; methanol; ethanol; chloroform), affinity chromatography on antibodies to 6-keto-PGF1a, immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. At any of these methods a lipid component was accompanied by activity of a protein part of destabilase (isopeptidase activity).
    The amidolytic destabilase activity in ordinary conditions was determined with the use of aqueous solvents. A specific activity constituted up to 1.6?10-11 mol?mg-1?s-1. In the next experiment a substrate solution in ethyl acetate and 0.6 ml of ethyl acetate were used. A specific amidolytic activity constituted up to 1.6?10-11 mol?mg-1?s-1. The use of substrate and ferment solutions in ethyl acetate did not lead to any changes in the starting destabilase activity.
    The preparation of destabilase with activity of 7.6?10-11 mol?mg-1?s-1, containing 6-keto-PGF1a in the concentration of 0.85 nanog/ml solution in the dose of 12 mg/kg was applied intravenously (n=20) or orally (gavage; n=20) 48, 24, 12 and 3 hours before stimulation of blood clotting in a jugular vein of rats. The animals of control group (n=30) received equal volume of 0,85% NaCI solution. The results of this experiment showed the degree of blood clotting at the animals of experimental group was 0% (concerning monitoring --100%) for interval 3 hours; for interval 12 hours -- 10±5% (p<0.01); for interval 24 hours --35±10% (p<0.01); for interval 48 hours - 75±10% (p<0.1).
    3. Liposomal properties of destabilase complex.
    While analyzing the destabilase influence on parameters of blood coagulation it was demonstrated that in its presence the fibrinogen coagulation time and blood plasma recalcification time (Table I3) were significantly prolonged.
    In the next experiments to obtain the destabilase a column with lysine immobilized on CNBr-activated Agarose in much more volume than it was needed for getting out of the destabilase preparation was used. At the result it appeared that HM1 part being linked with lysine-agarose contained both destabilase and prostacyclin analogue (6-keto-PGF1a) and hirudin and the blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor while the nonlinked with lysine HM1 part contained only destabilase fraction with MM 18 kD. The results of this experiment are shown in the Table I4.
    Table I4.
    The preparation Hirudon activity before and after affinity chromatography on lysine-agarose.
    Hirudon fractions Destabilase activity
    mol?mg-1?s-1.
    6-keto-PGF1a content
    ng/ml
    Hirudin
    activity ATU/mg
    Kallikrein inhibitor activity APC U/mg
    Starting solution4.10-112.209790
    Fraction linked with lysine14.10-111.25287365
    Fraction nonlinked with lysine39.10-110.3700
    In the following series of experiments we analyzed the development of indexes changes of blood coagulation system in the result of single oral application (n=40) of 0.5 ml of destabilase solution at protein concentration of 2 mg/ml. During 2 hours with intervals 10-15 minutes blood tests were taken from rats jugular vein and the recalcification time, time of fibrinogen coagulation by thrombin, and the reduction of platelet aggregation capacity were determined. Modification of these indexes, i.e. increase of blood plasma recalcification time by 80±6% (p<0.05), time of fibrinogen coagulation by thrombin by 40±5% (p<0.05), reduction of platelet aggregation capacity 36±5% (p<0.1) are registrated 25 min after the preparation applied, and 130±11% (p<0.01), 90±8% (p<0.05) and 76±10% (p<0.01) accordingly 60 minutes after the preparation applied. Apparently that the destabilase complex penetration from the gastro-intestinal tract into blood is fulfilled by 2 ways: an ordinary transport (a passive transfer) through intercellular contacts and trans-membrane (an active transfer) i.e. through cellular membrane due to incorporating into the membrane structure.
    4. The Liposome Construction by Medicinal Leeches.
    Salivary glands secretions, aqueous extractions of head and belly homogenate parts of the leech body, leech bacterium-symbiont culture Aeromonas hydrophila, whole newly born medicinal leeches were subjected to electrophoretic analysis. A fraction of DC with MM 12.3 (and about 1 kD in a practically free state appeared to be presented in leech bacterium simbiont while according to densitometry data the DC fraction with MM 50 kD for 45%, with MM 25 kD - 35%, MM 12.3 - only 10% was presented in salivary glands secretion and the homogenate of the head part of the leech body. Homogenate of the leech body belly part contains a fraction of DC with MM 25 kD in maximal concentrations (about 55%). So it is possible to suppose that leech bacterium-symbiont is a producer of destabilase (MM 12.3 kD) containing only polypeptide (merely destabilase) and lipid (prostacyclin-like) components. The activity of this fraction is maximal - 5.6?10-9 mol?mg-1?s-1. The protein fraction with MM about 18 kD possessing destabilase (fibrinolytic) activity remains unstudied. At the same time Aeromonas hydrophila culture contains also hirudin and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor in a free from destabilase state. The fact proving this is that newly born medicinal leeches having no contact with blood contain DC only with MM 12.3 kD.
    DISCUSSION

    Destabilase fraction with MW 12.3 kD accumulated by the method of preparational electrophoresis manifests its isopeptidase activity and contains 6-keto-PGF1a. Destabilase manifests its properties (i.e. hydrolysis of isopeptide linkages) in both aqueous and organic solvents. Amidolytic destabilase activity in ordinary conditions was determined with the use of aqueous solvents. The use of substrate and ferment solutions in ethyl acetate did not lead to any changes in the starting destabilase activity. So destabilase aggregations formed in the solution acquire micelle (Martinek K., Klyachko N.L., et al 1989) properties capable to change their spatial orientation depending on physical and chemical properties of solvents revealing either hydrophobic or hydrophilic parts of their structure.
    Another preparations of destabilase (MM 25 and 50 kD) obtained by biochemical methods (affinity chromatography on lysine-agarose, extraction by organic solvents, affinity chromatography on antibodies to 6-keto-PGF1a, immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B) and subjected to electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel in denaturing conditions, gelfiltration through Sephadex G-50, thermal processing at +80° C during 15 minutes, alkaline hydrolysis - in all these cases the destabilase preparation hirudin activity and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor activity are accompanied. It is obvious that the detected in our experiments antithrombotic potential of destabilase can hardly be explained by blockade of platelet aggregation conditioned with prostacyclin analogue (lipid component of destabilase) only. It is natural to suppose that similar action is provided by blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor and with antithrombin activity of hirudin which were discovered in preparations of destabilase (Table I3).
    Attention should be paid to the fact that destabilase is manifesting its action in the case of oral administration to animals also. It is evident that destabilase complex penetration from gastro-intestinal tract in blood is fulfilled by 2 ways: an ordinary transport (a passive transfer) through intercellular contacts and trans-membrane (an active transfer) i.e. through cellular membrane due to incorporating into membrane structure. This is possible for such a high molecular complex only in the case if it possesses liposome properties.
    Destabilase complex ability to change its spatial orientation depending on the solvent nature is evidently demonstrated while analyzing the components' activity of complex at transferring from aqueous phase to the organic one and visa versa. At the aqueous phase all the components of the destabilase complex manifest their activity, while in ethylacetate - the activity of destabilase (amidolytic) and prostaglandin (platelet aggregation blockade) only. At the reverse transfer of the complex into the aqueous phase all the components manifest their activity. Thus the destabilase (MM 12.3 kD) ability to aggregate in micelle and also to link hirudin and kallikrein inhibitor provides destabilase complex with properties and the structure of the liposome.
    So destabilase performs itself as rather a stable complex containing destabilase and prostaglandin components, hirudin and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor which may be called a "destabilase complex". The fact that this complex cannot be destructed by usual biochemical methods testifies about its stability.
    A special attention should be paid to the localization of this or that fraction of the destabilase complex in different parts of the medicinal leeches body. Salivary glands secretion, an aqueous extraction of homogenates of head and belly parts of leech body, leech bacterium-symbiont culture Aeromonas hydrophila and also whole newly born medicinal leeches having had no contacts with blood were subjected to the electrophoretic analysis. Thus it is possible to assume that while destabilase bacterium is secreting, the latter is acquiring the micelle structure which while contacting with blood (in leech gastro-intestinal tract) includes in (bonds) hirudin and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor forming a destabilase complex -liposome. In the process of blood digesting salivary glands accumulate this liposome and secrete it in saliva content into the patient's blood flow during the next blood sucking.
    The fact that can prove this supposition is that newly born medicinal leeches (having no contact with blood) contain DC only with MM 12.3 kD We could not find the data about the proportion of components in liposome structure (there is not any correlation). However we can confidently speak about the fact that destabilase with MM 12.3 kD is a micelle monomer, and DC with MM 25 kD are liposomes. It is proven to consider the fact that all hirudin and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor are in a linked state, i.e. in liposome combination and only in leech bacterium-symbiont these substances are in a free state. Now it becomes clear why at the process of hirudin obtaining (according to the Markwardt's method) a significant loss of this thrombin inhibitor takes place. The important reason is that in this method the conditions for full disintegration of DC, i.e. for full transfer of hirudin into a free state are not created.
    Because of the data obtained yet it is difficult to speak about mechanisms of the complex components interaction with each other. However, it is possible by way of supposition to consider that the hydrophilic part of destabilase is connected to hirudin and KI chains, which allosterically modify active cent of destabilase and form in space a site of binding with lysine. The binding and destabilase happen at the point of binding the substrate of active centres. The destabilase active center is in the immediate proximity from a lipid part of a molecule that provides the isopeptidase activity in solvents of different polarity.
    CONCLUSION

    Destabilase performs itself as rather a stable complex containing destabilase and prostaglandin components, hirudin and blood plasma kallikrein inhibitor which called as destabilase complex (DC). The similar structural organization DC ensures stabilization of components included in its structure (the complex cannot be destructed with usual biochemical methods).
    Liposomal nature of DC ensures also the important physiological role of this complex as a universal thrombolytic agent: the fast DC penetration through the cell membrane, attachments due to the destabilase lipid component to a damaged site of a vessel wall and to the blood clot, slow lysis of a fibrin bunch due to the isopeptidase activity of destabilase and inhibition of further blood clot formation at the expense of blockade of thrombin, blood plasma kallikrein, platelet aggregation and adhesion. Thus, natural liposome - DC is the agent ensuring as preventive antithrombotic and thrombolytic actions.

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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Hirudotherapy in reducing treatment of elderly age patients
    Russian University of Peoples Friendship Faculty of traditional medicine (Moscow)
    Gernov V.A.
    Reduction treatment or medical rehabilitation represents a system of measures which purpose is the recovery both infringed functions and health of the patient, and its personal and social status. The reduction treatment becomes now is very actual. It is connected with number of the elderly people all over the world is increased. It is supposed that to 2025 of a people of elderly age will make 15 % from all people living on the world.
    Use of methods of traditional medicine, including the hirudotherapy in gerontological practice for reaching positive clinical and economic benefit it is represented as perspectively. The examination 24 patients of arterial hypertension are conducted. Is shown that hirudotherapy has a positive effect in reduction treatment of gerontological patients.
    Hirudotherapy and hirudoreflexotherapy at standard drug treatment of elderly patients suffering by arterial hypertension in combination with HID cause proof reduction of arterial pressure in 1.4-1.7 times. A method of selection is hirudoreflexotherapy. Hirudoreflexotherapy allows reducing standard drug treatment up to a minimum permissible doze to 7 day, hirudotherapy to 9 day of treatment.
    The more broad application of hirudoreflexotherapy in gerontological practice is expedient.

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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Evaluation of side effects and complications development risk as a result of hirudotherapy
    Evaluation of side effects and complications development risk as a result of hirudotherapy
    Basheva E.V., Petrenko O.V.
    Ekaterinburg
    The purpose of this work was study of probability of beginnings of complications and responses by results of activity of two hirudotherapy clinics for period from 1998 till 2001.
    The observable patients have made group of 5099 persons in the age of from 14 till 85 years. The duration of a treatment made from three up to ten procedures; quantity of the leeches on a procedure - from 3 up to 20 pieces. The procedures were made with an interval 2-4 days. The statistical processing of results of treatment is conducted.
    Main nosological forms were follows: hypertension of I, II, III stages; ICD (stenocordia II, III, IV); osteochondrosis with muscle-tonic syndrome; chronic insufficiency of brain blood circulation; consequences ischemia insults; a syndrome intraskull hypertension; migraine; varicose veins (I, II, III); chronic lymphovenous insufficiency of I, II, III degrees; Reino syndrome; thrombophlebitis; chronic adnexitis; disturbance of a menstrual cycle; ovary cyst; fibroma; secondary sterility; chronic prostatit; acute and chronic antritis; chronic neurosensoric deafness; chronic tonsillitis.
    The greatest frequency of complications and responses (43 %) was observed at the patients which we consider expedient to select in group of risk, in which are referred following nosological form: varicose veins (I, II, III); chronic lymphovenous insufficiency of I, II, III degrees; adiposity of I-III stage; sugar diabetes of 1 and 2 types; chronic cholecystitis; chronic pancreatitis, and combination of listed diseases.
    The preparatory treatment in main consists in full volume of elimination measures. Preparation begins 1-3 weeks prior to a course of hirudotherapy or in parallel with it.
    Up to half of all time of a course of treatment is expended on a preparatory stage but the decreasing of frequency of complications and responses pays back loiter efforts. So, it is possible to reduce quantity of complications and responses at the patients of risk group in 1,8 times.
    By the risk of development of complications and side effects of treatment the hirudotherapy is in a high degree a safe method. The prediction both preventive maintenance of complications and side effects as a result of hirudotherapy at the patients of risk group is necessary. An individual preventive complex and observance of methodical features allow reducing quantity of complications and side effects.

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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Hirudotherapy in gynaecological practice
    Centre of aesthetic medicine and hirudotherapy (Moscow)
    Pankova I.P.
    The hirudotherapy method in a combination with hirudoreflexotherapy can be additional, and sometimes basic (at polyvalent medicinal allergy) method of treatment of a broad spectrum of gynaecological diseases. The hirudotherapy medical effect develops of the several factors: reflex, mechanical and biological.
    Main zones of leeching at gynaecological diseases are - area of a liver, sacrum, perineum, groin, anus, and vagina. Quantity of the leeches put for one session depends from individual features of the women, indexes of haemogramme, accompanying pathology, arterial pressure. Are usually put 2-6 leeches. The frequency of sessions depends from individual portability, usually in 2-4 days. The exposure time depends from portability of a procedure, purpose of statement on this or other zone. At realisation of a session of hirudotherapy the exposure time depends on desirable effect: stimulating or antianxiety. Quantity of sessions on a treatment course from 3 up to 15 is necessary under the control haemogramme, hemostasis, hormone profile, ultrasonic examination.
    Points for hirudoreflexotherapy are resulted at gynaecological diseases below. Their combination is strictly individual for each patient and requires knowledge of reflexotherapy; it is usual on one session the combination from 2-3 points undertakes.
    Hirudoreflexotherapy at ovary polycusts: VG-20, TR-20, V-23, V-31, V-60, V-62, RP-6, VB-20, VB-26, MC-5, F-3, F-5, F-11, VC-1, E-25, R-8, GI-11.
    Hirudoreflexotherapy at barrenness: VG-20, E-36, RP-6, VC-3, R-18, V-31, F-11, VC-4.
    Hirudoreflexotherapy at climacteric syndrome: VG-20, TR-20, VB-20, RP-6, MC-6, E-36, VC-2, P-2.
    Hirudoreflexotherapy at endometriosis: VC-2, E-25, E-27, E-29, RP-12, V-28, R-2, R-5, VG-4, VB-29, VC-7.
    Hirudoreflexotherapy at uterus fibromioma: VC-2, VC-1, E-31, E-29, RP-6, F-8, R-5, VG-4.
    Hirudoreflexotherapy at mastopathia: VG-20, VB-20, VB-21, E-17, GI-4, VG-14, VC-17, E-31, RP-6.
    Hirudotherapy has obvious advantages in the plan of the reasonable use on comparison with medicines and sometimes surgical treatment as renders COMPLEX action on an organism, correcting activity of all functional systems practically without negative side effects (that cannot be told about chemotherapy.

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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Hirudotherapy in complex treatment of diabetes
    Sanatorium "IJMINVODI" ("Shifali Su") (Tatarstan)
    Snadina R.M., Ahmetzianova F.Z.
    Results of continuous use of hirudotherapy (from 1999 till 2002) in complex treatment of the patients suffering sugar diabetes at the stage of sanatorium rehabilitation (40 patients) are adduced. Duration of disease from 1 tills 15 years. The treatment was made under the following program:
    1. Correction of a feed;
    2. Correction of breathing;
    3. Drinking of a local mineral water;
    4. Iodine-bromine bath;
    5. Phytotherapy;
    6. Hirudotherapy.
    Hirudotherapy was made by the principle of hirudoreflexotherapy. At realisation of hirudotherapy course were inspected the contents of a level glucose in blood and urine, cholesterol in blood.
    At all patients the clinical improving is reached. At the patients sugar diabetes I degrees the multiplicity and doze entered insulin has decreased, the contents of glucose in blood has decreased up to 6-8 mM/l (28 %).
    The experience of hirudotherapy in sanatorium conditions at the stage of rehabilitation of the diabetes patients and accompanying pathologies allows making a conclusion about hirudotherapy effectiveness, practical absence of complications and side effects. This testifies about therapeutical value of the medicinal leeches in a combination to other methods of treatment of diabetes

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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Hirudotherapy and manual therapy at diseases gastrointestinal tract
    Medical-improving "Family Healthy Centre " (Great Novgorod)
    Shipina A.A.
    Pain in a stomach - often reason of patient's reversal to the doctor. The careful analysis of a pain actuates determination of localisation, time of appearance and duration of a pain, and also characteristic of a sharpness of a beginning and frequency of pain attacks. Visceral pain, on practical observations, more often happens is called by inflammations and ischemias, which are the important indication for hirudotherapy treatment.
    The hirudotherapy offered course consists of five sessions (treatment course is used from 30 up to 50 leeches):
    Conclusions: at the reversal of the patient in clinic, are carried for him diagnostics by skin, backbone, iris, tongue, pulsating diagnostics on vessels of internal organs and is made the plan of treatment, in which are included:
    1. Relaxation of a backbone
    2. Manual therapy of internal organs
    3. Manual therapy of a backbone
    4. Hirudotherapy on the above described techniques
    5. Phytotherapy.
    Efficiency (effectiveness) of treatment - 86-90 %;
    Duration of remission - from 5 till 10 years.

  15. #30
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    Implicit Re: HIRUDOLOGIA - tratament cu lipitori

    Use of biorica relax tablets in functionnal unit of psychiatry in france (bordeaux)
    Clinique des Gravieres 33310 LORMONT (Bordeaux, France)
    Oudot D., Soutoul F., Douet M.
    This functional Unit is a decentralised Unit with capacity of 24 beds for the treatment of people less than 45 years old, voluntary for the hospitalisation, without any major behaviour disorder and with pathology necessitating full time and brief hospitalisation.
    The device of care corresponds to traditional line of psychiatry institutions with chemiotherapeutic institutionalised and psychotherapeutic approach.
    This psychotherapeutic approach is based on individual discussions, taking charge of a group. This approach favours therapy with bodily mediation, relaxation techniques and hydrotherapy.
    In this way, Biorica relax tablets could be used. A protocol of specify cares was elaborated in accordance with the properties of Biorica relax tablets that were previously studied.
    Relaxing bath called "tablets care" consists in total immersion, until the nape, of the patient in water with temperature between 34-36°C, in which was put 1 relax tablet. The length of bath is 20 minutes and this care is made every 2 days during 2 weeks. It is taken around 1 hour before sleeping. During this protocol, at each bath, a nurse sits near the patient during immersion.
    Now we have hindsight on many patients. We have selected them on very strict criterions concerning their pathology:
    1. no psychotic disorder
    2. neurotic anxious disorder
    Most of them presented an anxious depressive disorder on the way of improvement thanks to chemical therapy. For some of them, this disorder was due to alcoholic withdrawal.
    We could note that for all the patients
    1. A feeling of warmth after some minutes probably corresponding to vasodilating effect of Hirudo medicinalis extract.
    2. Follows a feeling of wellbeing and relaxation. During this time, the patient can express himself easier with the nurse near him and he indulges in confiding a little more. In this way care cornes within the scope of bodily mediation.
    3. This state endures some hours after the bath with diminution of anxiety.
    4. The patients benefiting from the care could recover a better quality of asleep and also a diminution of early waking. This could be verified by observation and also because patients did not need the adjuvanthypnotic treatment which was proposed if necessary.
    5. For some of them a diminution of anxiolytic drugs thanks to clinical improvement of their state and development of tablets care.
    Some patients who used before alcohol to prevent anxiety had decide to continue at home tablets care as means of substitution, particularly when anxiety happened almost at twilight.
    Other patients wished also to continue tablets care after leaving the clinic. Most of them to avoid taking drugs, tranquillisers or hypnotic based on benzodiazepine .
    We would like to specify that use of Biorica relax tablets was based on a protocol of cares and not for an experimentation of product itself because this product was previously tested.
    The first results are encouraging to continue this care and improve the technique

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